Written By- Namrata Jaiswal
[Guided by Ms Leela Taparia, Ms Monika Malik & Ms Sana Taj Sheikh]
Man-made fibers are those fibers which are developed by man. Man-made fibers are made from various chemicals, or are regenerated from plant fibers. Man-made fibers also called artificial fibers.
CLASSIFICATION OF MAN-MADE FIBER
Regenerated Man-Made Fiber
Regenerated man-made fibers are obtained from cellulosic base material. Regenerated fibers are generated by using natural source as a base and are chemically shaped to filament form.
1 . Rayon: Rayon is made from cellulose obtained from wood pulp–usually from pine, spruce, or hemlock trees and cotton linters, which are residue fibers clinging to cotton seed after the ginning process.
Viscose rayon is the most common and versatile. It can be blended with man-made or natural fibers and made into fabrics of varying weight and texture. It is also an absorbent, cost-effective and comfortable fabric to wear.
2. Acetate: This fiber consists of a cellulose compound identified as acetylated cellulose a cellulose salt. As a result acetate possesses different qualities from the rayon.
Acetate fiber is thermoplastic; i.e. it can be formed into a desired shape by the application of pressure with heat. Fabrics made of acetate yarn are rather shape-retentive. They are used primarily for apparel.
3. Triacetate: This fiber consists of acetylated cellulose that retains acetic groupings when it is being produced as triacetate cellulose.
Triacetate has certain properties that are different from acetate fiber. It is a thermoplastic fiber that is more resilient that other cellulosic fibers. Fabrics made of triacetate yarn have good shape-retentive properties. They are used primly for apparel.
Synthetic Man-Made Fiber
Synthetic man-made fibers manufactured from synthesising using various chemicals like the petroleum products. Synthetic fibers are generated by only chemicals. They do not require natural raw material as a base for the manufacture.
1. Nylon: Nylon was the first synthetic fiber, which was originally produced in America. The elements carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen are combined by chemical processes in to compounds which react to form long – chain molecules, known chemically as polyamides and are then formed into fibers.
Nylon is thermoplastic, resilient, elastic and very strong. It is used for apparel, home furnishing and industrial products.
2. Polyester: Polyester is most widely used synthetic fibers. The filament from other fiber is extremely versatile and can be blended with many other Fibers contributing its good properties to the blend without destroying the desirable properties of the other fiber. The versatility in blending is one of the unique advantages of polyester.
The abrasion resistance and strength of polyester are excellent.
3. Acrylic: Acrytonitrite is the substance from which acrylic fibers are made and from which the name is derived. Acrylic fibers are soft, warm, lightweight and resilient. They are superior to wool in their easy care properties and are non ‘allergenic’.
4. Spandex: Most textile fibers have some elasticity, but special groups known as ‘spandex’ or elastomeric fibers have been specially designed to return to their original size immediately the pulling stress is released.
Spandex was first produced by Du Pont under the trade name ‘Lycra’. Spandex is used in foundation garments active sportswear, hosiery, swimwear, socks, lingerie and other body fitting apparel.
Man-made fibers are very soft, which is the reason of their huge demand in clothing. clothing made form man-made fibers are usually cheaper than the clothing made from natural fibers. These fibers are very strong in nature, embroidery and embellishments are mostly done on these fabrics.
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