MAN-MADE FIBRE

Written By- Namrata Jaiswal

[Guided by Ms Leela Taparia, Ms Monika Malik & Ms Sana Taj Sheikh]

INTRODUCTION

Man-made fibers are those fibers which are developed by man. Man-made fibers are made from various chemicals, or are regenerated from plant fibers. Man-made fibers also called artificial fibers.

CLASSIFICATION OF MAN-MADE FIBER

Made By Namrata Jaiswal on MS Word

Regenerated Man-Made Fiber

Regenerated man-made fibers are obtained from cellulosic base material. Regenerated fibers are generated by using natural source as a base and are chemically shaped to filament form.

1 . Rayon: Rayon is made from cellulose obtained from wood pulp–usually from pine, spruce, or hemlock trees and cotton linters, which are residue fibers clinging to cotton seed after the ginning process.

Viscose rayon is the most common and versatile. It can be blended with man-made or natural fibers and made into fabrics of varying weight and texture. It is also an absorbent, cost-effective and comfortable fabric to wear.

2. Acetate: This fiber consists of a cellulose compound identified as acetylated cellulose a cellulose salt. As a result acetate possesses different qualities from the rayon.

Acetate fiber is thermoplastic; i.e. it can be formed into a desired shape by the application of pressure with heat. Fabrics made of acetate yarn are rather shape-retentive. They are used primarily for apparel.

3. Triacetate: This fiber consists of acetylated cellulose that retains acetic groupings when it is being produced as triacetate cellulose.

Triacetate has certain properties that are different from acetate fiber. It is a thermoplastic fiber that is more resilient that other cellulosic fibers. Fabrics made of triacetate yarn have good shape-retentive properties. They are used primly for apparel.

Synthetic Man-Made Fiber

Synthetic man-made fibers manufactured from synthesising using various chemicals like the petroleum products. Synthetic fibers are generated by only chemicals. They do not require natural raw material as a base for the manufacture.

1. Nylon: Nylon was the first synthetic fiber, which was originally produced in America. The  elements carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen are combined by chemical processes in to compounds which react to form long – chain molecules, known chemically as polyamides and are then formed into fibers.

Nylon is thermoplastic, resilient, elastic and very strong. It is used for apparel, home furnishing and industrial products.

2. Polyester: Polyester is most widely used synthetic fibers. The filament from other fiber is extremely versatile and can be blended with many other Fibers contributing its good properties to the blend without destroying the desirable properties of the other fiber. The versatility in blending is one of the unique advantages of polyester.

The abrasion resistance and strength of polyester are excellent.

3. Acrylic: Acrytonitrite is the substance from which acrylic fibers are made and from which the name is derived. Acrylic fibers are soft, warm, lightweight and resilient. They are superior to wool in their easy care properties and are non ‘allergenic’.

4. Spandex: Most textile fibers have some elasticity, but special groups known as ‘spandex’ or elastomeric fibers have been specially designed to return to their original size immediately the pulling stress is released.

Spandex was first produced by Du Pont under the trade name ‘Lycra’. Spandex is used in foundation garments active sportswear, hosiery, swimwear, socks, lingerie and other body fitting apparel.

Man-made fibers are very soft, which is the reason of their huge demand in clothing. clothing made form man-made fibers are usually cheaper than the clothing made from natural fibers. These fibers are very strong in nature, embroidery and embellishments are mostly done on these fabrics.

Hope it was an interesting read…!!!

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KNOW YOUR FABRIC:THE BURN TEST

Written By- Annu Taneja

(Guided by Ms Leela Taparia, Ms Monika Malik & Ms Sana Taj Sheikh)

INTRODUCTION

Fabric identification is done with a simple technique  known as burn test or fiber  burn test, also known as Flammability Test. Basically, a burn test is done to identify the fabric that is unknown to determine if the fabric is a natural fiber, man made fiber, or a blend of natural and man made fibers. To identify the mixture of fabrics by burn test, the sample of fiber, yarn of fabric Should be burned and the reaction should be observed carefully, as the reactions differ from fabric to fabric.The burn test is commonly used by many designers and fabric stores to determine the exact fiber content.

Only a person with good experience can manage to get the exact results. If someone is new at this and is doing it for the first time, make sure to do it with someone who is experienced.

EQUIPMENT’S REQUIRED FOR BURN TEST

The basic equipments that you will need for a burn test are-

  • Matches or a lighter to burn the fabric.
  • A small container to hold the Piece of fabric you want to burn
  •  Tongs Or forceps to hold the fabric

Precautions to be taken-

  •  Keep some water close in case of excessive burning to control the flame.
  • If you’re not an adult don’t do it alone, go grab someone.
  • Use fireproof containers and avoid Plastic.

Things to be aware of before doing a burn test

  • Natural fibers  burns quickly with a yellow flame. The odour is usually same as a burning paper or hair. The ash is mostly soft and Gray.
  • Synthetic Fibers usually shrinks away from the flame. The burn with an acid and have a chemical odour. The ash is like a plastic bead and is not soft.

HOW TO DO A BURN TEST

Cut the fabric into small swatches and hold it with the help of tongs from the corner, over your container. use the matchsticks and add flame at the corner of the fabric.

Observe-

  • Reaction to the flame.
  • The smell of the burn.
  • The ash.

OBSERVATION & CONCLUSION POST BURN TEST

1 . Cotton: Cotton is a natural fiber hence it burns quickly with the yellow flame and has an afterglow. It smells like a burning paper. The ash is light, feathery, greyish and the black ash denotes mercerised cotton.

Done practically under the guidance of LEELA MA’AM

2. Linen: Linen is a Natural fiber. It burns quickly (not as quick as cotton) With yellow flame. It also Smells like a burning paper and the ash is Light grey.

3. Silk: Silk is a natural fiber which comes under the category of animal fibres.  It smolders and curls away from the flame.It sputters and burns slowly with difficulty. It smells like a burning feather or hair. The ash is rounded, crisp, shiny black beads and can be easily crashed.

 Done practically under the guidance of LEELA MA’AM.

4. Wool: Wool is again a natural fiber which comes under the category of animal fibers. It smoulders and curls away from the flame. It also flickers and stop burning when away from the flame. It smells like burning hair and the ash is usually crisp and dark.

5. Rayon: It is a regenerated Cellulose fiber. It burns rapidly (faster than cotton) With a yellow flame but has no after glow. The smell is same as a burning paper or leaves. It has a slight grey ash.

6. Nylon: Nylon melts and shrinks away from the flame. It stops burning When removed from the flame and smells like burning plastic. The ash is round, hark, bead which won’t crush.

7. Polyester: Polyesters are man made fibers. It fuses and shrinks away from the flame and melts burning slowly full stop. It burns with difficulty and the smell is slightly sweetish. The ash is hard, round, brittle, black bead Which won’t crush.

Done practically under the guidance of LEELA MA’AM

8. Acrylic: It catches flame quickly and burns rapidly with splutters. The smell is harsh and acrid. The ash is made up of uneven beads which do not crush.

9. Spandex: Spandex is a man made fiber. It fuses but does not shrink away from the flame and melts while burning. The odour is acrid. The ash is soft, fluffy, black and Sticky to touch.

Done under the guidance of LEELA MA’AM.

SAFETY MEASURES WHILE PERFORMING BURN TEST

When dealing with flame, safety is of upmost importance. Be prepared with all the safety measures before doing the burn test. Sink is the safest place to do so. Use small pieces of fabrics instead of big ones. Always do it with someone who is experienced.

I hope the blog was an informative read….!!!

Go burn some fabric now to know the ACTUAL fiber content!!!

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A QUEST FOR NATURAL FIBRE

Written By- Nikita Rajani

Guided By – [Ms Leela Taparia, Ms Monika Malik & Ms Sana Taj Sheikh]

INTRODUCTION

All those fibres which come from natural sources and do not require fiber formation or reformation are known as natural fibres. Natural fibres are a renewable resource, are biodegradable and readily available from natural sources. These fibres are the substances produced by plants and animals that can be spun into filament, thread and further be woven, non-woven or knitted. Some advantages of natural fibres are that, these fibres result in higher specific strength and stiffness. These are renewable resources and hence, breathable fabrics can be made.

CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL FIBRE

Natural fibers can be classified according to their origin. The vegetable or cellulose-base class includes fibers like cotton, linen. The animal or protein-base fibers include wool, silk. The mineral fibers are asbestos.

Vegetable Fibres

Vegetable fibers are obtained from various parts of the plants. Cotton and linen are the two major fibers obtained from plants. Other minor fibers are jute, hemp, coir, pina, sisal, kapok.

1 . Cotton: The cotton fiber grows in the seedpod or ball of the cotton plant. Each fiber is a single elongated cell that is flat, twisted and ribbon like. It is composed of about 90% cellulose and about 6% moisture; the remainder consists of natural impurities.

Image Source: www.textilechapter.com                                                        

Care and finish of cotton:

  • Wash colour cotton in hot water and rinse in cold water.
  • Soak badly soiled article in cold water before washing.
  • The fabrics are impregnated with a chemical so that the cotton recovers from creasing.

2. Linen: The linen fiber is obtained from the stalk of the flax plant. It is composed of about 70% cellulose and about 30% pectin, ash, woody tissue and moisture. Linen fiber is smooth, straight and lustrous. It is more brittle and less flexible than cotton. It is more difficult to prepare and spin into yarn. Linen fiber is smooth and cool to wear. It is firm to handle. It absorbs moisture well and has no fluffy surfaces. It does not trap dust but it creases badly and it is expensive.

Care of linen:

  • Hot water, hard soap or soda is used for washing the linen fabrics.
  • Rinse thoroughly in cold water.
  • If necessary coloured linen is bleaches with chlorine bleach.
  • If it is well washed and dried in sun then linen will remain in good colour.

 Animal Fibers

Animal fibers are obtained from different sources, consist exclusively proteins. Silk and wool are the two major animal fibers.

1 . Silk: Silk fiber is a fine continuous strand unwound from a cocoon of silkworm, which is generally cultivated. Another type of silk is obtained from uncultivated silkworm cocoon. They latter produce a coarser fiber. Silk fiber is lustrous, lightweight, smooth, strong and elastic.

Characteristics of Silk:

  • The threads of silk have no twists and have a natural luster.
  • The fibers are naturally elastic and therefore crease- resistant.
  • Silk is the warmest fabric.
  • It is an expensive fabric to buy.
  • Silk is non- flammable.
Image Source: www.etsy.com

2. Wool: Wool fiber grows from the skin of sheep. It is composed of a protein known as Keratin. Wool is a coarse fiber and is wavy in nature. Woolen cloth does not fray easily and knitting yarns do not readily divide. Wool fibers vary in quality and length according to the breed of sheep. The shorter fibers are finer. Due to the natural grease from the skin of the animal, raw wool contains many impurities. Wool is a good non-conductor of heat. Woolen clothes help to maintain body temperature. It is non-flammable and safe material for children to wear. When wet the fiber become softened and will easily stretch.

Care of wool:

  • Brush to remove loose dusts.
  • Do not rub when wet.
  • Do not allow fabric to become too soiled.

Mineral Fiber

Mineral fiber is a non-metallic, inorganic fiber. Asbestos, graphite and glass are the mineral fibers.

1 . Asbestos: Asbestos occur naturally as fiber. It is composed of soft and fiber that are resistant to heat, electricity and corrosion. Asbestos is an effective insulator and strong fiber. When handling these materials, the process has to be designed in such a way that no asbestos fibers are released into the air.

Natural fibers are very important and very useful fibers which compete and coexist together with man-made fibers, particularly in the areas of quality, sustainability and economy and production. The main challenges for the near future is to further improve durability and mechanical performance of these composites & developing the eco-friendly as well as sustainable strategies for the same.

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